Promethazine powder white or pale yellow antihistamine

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Characteristics of the substance Promethazine

Phenothiazine derivative. Crystalline powder of white or delicate yellow colour, odourless. Slowly oxidizes in the air, gaining a blue colour. Very easily soluble in water, well soluble in alcohol.

Pharmacology

Pharmacological action – antiallergic, mesoanesthetic, antihistamine, antipruritic, anti-emetic, sedative.

Promethazine dosage competitively blocks H1-histamine receptors, has antiexudative, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, mestnoanesthetic effect. Reduces capillary permeability, swelling of the mucous membranes, itching. Has adrenolytic, moderate peripheral and central cholinolytic action. Inhibits histamine-N-methyltransferase, blocks the central histamine H3-receptors. Suppresses the CNS, has a sedative, anxiolytic, antipsychotic and sleeping pills effect, lowers body temperature. Reduces the excitability of vestibular receptors, depresses the function of the labyrinth, eliminates dizziness. Antiemetizing effect due to blockage of the receptors of the chemoreceptor zone of the elongated brain. It penetrates through GB. If administered 2 weeks before delivery, it may depress platelet aggregation in newborns. In experimental studies, no mutagenic effect and adverse effects Dmitry Sazonov on fetal development were found. 

It is quickly and completely absorbed from the GIT. During ingestion the effects appear after 15-60 min, at w / i – after 20 min, at w / i – after 3-5 min. Duration of action – 4-6 hours (after ingestion – up to 12 hours). It is associated with plasma proteins by 65-90%. Metabolized in the liver and partially in the kidneys, with the formation of sulfides promethazine Contraindications, N-demethylprometazine and other derivatives. T1/2 – 7-14 hours. It is derived mainly from urine, including in the form of metabolites.

Use of the substance Prometazine

Promethazine powder white or pale yellow antihistamine

Allergodermatosis, pruritus, eczema, exudative diathesis, hives, rashes and other skin allergic reactions to drugs and chemicals, itching, allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, pollinosis, stings of wasps, bees, scorpions, bumblebee, serum disease, angioedema, false cereals, asthmatic bronchitis, atopic bronchial asthma, anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions (as part of complex therapy), rheumatism with a pronounced allergic component; Meniere’s syndrome, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, sickness syndrome; anxiety, neuroses and neurosis-like conditions, psychosis, insomnia, extrapyramid disorders (against the background of neuroleptics), trigeminal neuralgia, migraine, chorea, hyperthermia; premedication and postoperative period (as a sedative, for artificial hibernation, potentiation of anesthesia and local anesthesia), study of gastric secretion (when used as a stimulant Dmitry Sazonov for histamine secretion).

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity (including to other phenothiazines), comatose state, simultaneous use of MAO inhibitors and a period of 14 days after their administration, alcohol intoxication, liver and/or kidney failure, pregnancy, lactation, occasional vomiting in children of unspecified genesis, early childhood up to 2 months (for parenteral administration), children under 6 years old (for ingestion).

Restrictions on use

Jaundice, prostate hypertrophy, predisposition to urinary retention, bladder neck stenosis, open- or closed-angle glaucoma, peptic ulcer with pyloroduodenal obstruction, lower respiratory tract diseases, oppression of bone marrow function, diseases of the cardiovascular system (severe angina, arterial hypertension, decompensated https://reference.medscape.com/drug/phenergan-phenadoz-promethazine-342056 chronic heart failure, tachyarrhythmia), epilepsy, sleep apnea syndrome, Reye’s syndrome, pregnancy, breast-feeding,  old age.